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❶Normal science is the step-by-step scientific process , which builds patiently upon previous research.

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Though, both of these paradigms are opposite of each other they represent the reality in two different manners, both of them have their own value and significance in the growth and development of knowledge. References Cohen, Louis, et al. Tags paradigms paradigms of research research research paradigms. Constructivism is an approach to conducting the research just like positivism. This approach is one ….

Your email address will not be published. What is a Research Paradigm? Previous Ratio Scale in Research Methodology. Next Positivism in Social Science Research. Constructivism Paradigm in Social Science Research Constructivism is an approach to conducting the research just like positivism. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. He developed theories which were built on a typology of interest. Habermas postulated three types of interest which generate three types of knowledge:.

Critical theorists suggest two kinds of research methodologies, namely, ideology critique and action research, for undertaking research work. Critical theory has also been criticized by some of the contemporary scholars. Whist the claim to there being three forms of knowledge has the epistemological attraction of simplicity, one has to question this very simplicity Keat, ; there are a multitude of interests and ways of understanding the world; and it is simply artificial to reduce these to three interests Cohen et al, Each of the paradigms discussed above has definite research methods which can be used in carrying out scientific investigation.

Positivism which emphasizes objectivist approach to studying social phenomena gives importance to research methods focusing on quantitative analysis, surveys, experiments and the like.

Similarly, anti-positivism which stresses on subjectivist approach to studying social phenomena attaches importance to a range of research techniques focusing on qualitative analysis, e. Similarly, critical theory suggests ideology critique and action research as research methods to explore the existing phenomena. The following questions may be raised by the researcher:.

Based on the above questions, the researcher can identify whether the research questions pertain to positivism, anti-positivism, and critical theory; and choose the appropriate methodology accordingly. Although, each of the paradigms has corresponding approaches and research methods, still a researcher may adopt research methods cutting across research paradigms as per the research questions she proposes to answer. Research Methods in Education 5 th Ed. Research Paradigms in Education: Journal of Indian Education 19 2 , pp Knowledge and Human Interests J.

University of Chicago Press. Issues in Educational Research. Selection of the Research Paradigm and Methodology Dr. Positivism The positivist paradigm of exploring social reality is based on the philosophical ideas of the French philosopher August Comte, who emphasized observation and reason as means of understanding human behaviour.

Anti-positivism Anti-positivism emphasizes that social reality is viewed and interpreted by the individual herself according to the ideological positions she possesses. Critical theory The main protagonist of this theory was Jurgen Habermas, who worked at the Frankfurt School in Germany to develop an approach of investigation and action in the social sciences, which could describe the historical forces that restrict human freedom and expose the ideological justification of those forces.

Habermas postulated three types of interest which generate three types of knowledge: A technical interest concerned with the control of the physical environment, which generates empirical and analytical knowledge. A practical interest concerned with understanding the meaning of situation, which generates hermeneutic and historical knowledge.

But once in a while, enough anomalies accumulate within a field that the entire paradigm itself is required to change to accommodate them. Kuhn believed that science had periods of patiently gathering data within a paradigm, mixed in with the occasional revolution as the paradigm matured.

A paradigm shift is not a threat to science, but rather the very manner in which it progresses. Normal science is the step-by-step scientific process , which builds patiently upon previous research. Revolutionary science, often ' fringe science ' questions the paradigm itself.

Many physicists in the 19 th century were convinced that the Newtonian paradigm that had reigned for years was the pinnacle of discovery and that scientific progress was more or less a question of refinement. When Einstein published his theories on General Relativity, it was not just another idea that could fit comfortably into the existing paradigm.

Kuhn later conceded that the process of scientific advancement might be more gradual. For example, Relativity did not completely prove Newton wrong, but merely reframed his theory. The concept of paradigm is closely related to the Platonic and Aristotelian views of knowledge.

Aristotle believed that knowledge could only be based upon what is already known, the basis of the scientific method. Plato believed that knowledge should be judged by what something could become, the end result, or final purpose.

Plato's philosophy is more like the intuitive leaps that cause scientific revolution; Aristotle's the patient gathering of data. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. What Is A Paradigm?. Retrieved Sep 13, from Explorable.

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Definition. A research paradigm is an approach or a research model to conducting a research that has been verified by the research community for long and that has been in practice for hundreds of years.

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The most quoted definition of paradigm is Thomas Kuhn's (, ) concept in The Nature of Science Revolution, i.e. paradigm as the underlying assumptions and intellectual structure upon which research and development in a field of inquiry is based. What is the difference between research paradigm and research approach? Can a research be: a qualitative research with post-positivistic paradigm and exploratory in nature? Research paradigm.

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A scientific paradigm is a framework containing all the commonly accepted views about a subject, conventions about what direction research should take . What is your paradigm? Time to spend on this section: hours Across disciplines (and within) there are varying views of what research is and how this relates to the kind of knowledge being developed.